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Glasgow

Manchester

 

 

Glasgow

  1. presentation of Glasgow
Glasgow city (700,000 inhabitants)
Greater Glasgow

Covers 5 districts (City of Glasgow, Renfrew, Strathkelvin, Monklands and Inverclyde).

Central Clydeside (1,5 million people)

Covers 11 districts.

Strathclyde region (2 million people)

In Scotland, there are 10 regions (=/= counties).

Largest region : Strathclyde (19 Districts, largest one : Glasgow).

Glasgow and Scotland (5 million people)

Its the biggest city in Scotland but not its capital (Edinburgh).

Glasgow and the United Kingdom (57 million people)

It has easy access by :

Air (Glasgow airport and Prestwick airport)

Rail (high speed rail service to and from London)

Road (direct motorway links with all major UK cities)

Glasgow and the rest of Europe

Closeness to the Scandinavian countries (Reykjavik, Stavanger in Sweden).

Closeness to the rest of Europe by air (frequent flights).

Glasgow and the world

Outlet (= dpart) towards the USA by air (Boston and New York).

  1. history of glasgow up to 1945
    1. general trends
543 : Settlement of St. Kentigern (origin of Glasgow).
Disappearance from history until the 12th century : beginning of the present cathedral.
Growth as a trading centre.
1451 : Foundation of the university (at the time, only 2 universities were already founded : Oxford and Cambridge ; and only 1 in Scotland : St Andrews).
1688 : Foundation of Port Glasgow due to the growth of trade with the American colonies and the West Indies.

 

1603 : Elizabeth 1st (the virgin queen) dies.

James 6th of Scotland (Mary queen of Scots son) became James 1st of England.

Problem : he was king of England and Scotland (2 different constitutions).

Moreover, Scotland was trading with the 13 English colonies of America and their amount of trade was limited.

1707 : Treaty of union.

The 2 Parliaments mixed in 1 in London ; the 2 states became the United Kingdom.

Consequence : there was no more any obstacles to Scottish traders to have access to the colonies in America.

And, as the colonists were not allowed to trade directly with Europe, it gave a great advantage to Glasgow and stimulated its first economic take-off by making Glasgow an important entrept, notably for the tobacco trade of the Southern States of America.

1775-83 : American war of independence ; it ended the tobacco trade.

Tobacco imports to the Clyde :

1707 1 million

1775 45 million

1780 5 million

Development of the cotton industry

The 1st cotton mills were driven by water power, which was an advantage for Glasgow and the river Clyde. Steam power allowed more power and whenever you want.

The New Lanark experiment by Robert Owen (end of the 19th century)

Workers were housed in cleaned areas, children also worked. R.O cared the workers and set up schools (Read-obvious for Protestantism to read the Bible-, Write, Arithmetic).

Critics of this experiment : paternalism and slavery (aborted in 1860) for he had the whole power.

1861-65 : American civil war

After it, there were no more Negroes to pick up cotton, it led to a crisis.

There was only the heavy industry left (1840-1918)

Favoured by local deposits of coal and iron ore (= minerai) moreover located at the lowest point at which the Clyde could be bridged and then by the industrial revolution. But natural resources were nearing exhaustion.

Shipbuilding boomed

GB was the world biggest trading nation (" the workshop of the world ") and it did it by sea.

GB was the biggest empire in the world and it was protected by the Royal Navy, very powerful : 1/3 of the merchant and Royal ships are built in Glasgow.

Development of iron hull (= coque) and steam instead of wood and wind.

The army was in ships.

There were slumps in the economy but rearmament was a struggle for the mastery of Europe, then heavy industry boomed (during the war and after).

In terms of shipping registered, Glasgow was the 3rd British port after London and Liverpool.

The railway industry also boomed and in 1900, the major manufacturers came together to form the largest locomotive company in Europe. It was very important to Glasgow because its in the North of Great Britain, without the railway it would have never developed.

Other industries established in the 19th century : carpet weaving (= tissage) due to the amount of sheep available to give wool, motor car manufacture (in 1896).

Still, Glasgow remained the 2nd city of the Empire; and it created problems of population.

As the city developed, more and more people were needed to work in the factories.

Glasgows population :

1801 77,000

1910 1,000,000

Immigrants were from : the surrounding areas, the Scottish Highlands or Ireland.

Irish people had 2 solutions to go : the USA and Great Britain (by Liverpool or Glasgow).

It explains the catholic minority in a Protestant country. But it created rivalry, even in football.

Some appalling social conditions : principally overcrowding that is still true today.

Solutions intended :

Clearance (helped to widen the roads)

Little building upward

Movement of the boundaries outwards (in 1870 the university moved to the western suburb of Gilmorehill).

1918 : men > 21 and women > 30 had the right to vote.
    1. shipbuilding and heavy industries : 1840-1918
      1. before 1930
the general changes :

after 1841 : rapid growth of the Clyde shipyards, result of the adoption of steam propulsion and the increasing use of iron instead of wood.

the growth of steelworks made Clydeside such a leader in steel shipbuilding.

development of marine engineering.

increase in the scientific infrastructure

1915 : Glasgow was at its apogee

It had a diversified industry but a general dependency on heavy industry. Glasgow was manufacturing good and an international and national trading centre.

Necessity to build ships to transport goods to sell to the market.

It explains the increase in the number of canals and barges (= pniches); but they declined after the railway came.

Volume of shipbuilding on the Clyde :

1860 100,000 tons

1913 750,000 tons

In 1913 there were about 60,000 men employed in Clyde shipyards and marine engineering shops.

      1. after 1930
It was the dependence of Glasgow and Clydeside on shipbuilding and heavy engineering that made them so vulnerable to depression in the 1930s.
A severe drop in the level of employment in the heavy industries of the Clyde valley happened. It affected the consumer goods industries and service trades of the city.

Total number of workers dependent on the shipyards :

1919 43,000

1930 29,310

2/3 of the men normally engaged in the industry were unemployed.

The shipping needs of WW1 had inflated the shipbuilding capacity of the country by 1/3 but the reduction in demand after the war created problems.

Solution : concentration in a smaller number of yards. So, massive unemployment and political bitterness.

Decision to combat depression by increasing efficiency and cutting costs.

Merging of firms to eliminate competition + decrease of industrial control = Scotland became a depressed area. (ex : railway merger of 1923 brought to London the control of Scotlands railways = moving of the industries to England while the locomotive building industry was so important to Scotland)

      1. conclusion : 1840-1918
        1. advantages of Glasgow
          1. raw materials available
          2. Closeness of coal and iron ore enabled Glasgow to develop into heavy industry, shipbuilding and railways

          3. communications
            1. inter-city transport
The River Clyde (widened and deepened) ; it made possible the shipbuilding industry
Canals and waterways (very important even if man made and slow : the barges (= pniches) were able to transport heavy goods).
Railways (1840-1860 : " Railway mania ")If there had been none, Glasgow wouldnt have been the centre of a major conurbation. They got the raw materials to the factories and finished goods to the market. It allowed Glasgow, the most northern industrial place in the UK to be linked to the other industrial areas.
            1. city transport

People were get to their workplace and then back home, this because as the city grew, the suburbs were further and further from the city centre.

Horse drown buses to get people to their workplace
Tramways (1870) by horse , steam and then electricity (1898 to 1962)
Underground (1896) ; Glasgow was the 2nd city after London to have it
Motor buses
          1. workforce available

It was easier to set up a factory. Industries were " labour intensive " : they needed a lot of people to look after the machines.

The people came from :

The surrounding areas
Ireland (1840-60 : various famines)
The Highlands (poor area of Scotland)
Eastern Europe (pogroms against Jews)
Italy (poverty)
          1. technical know how
          2. Due to the importance of education in Protestantism and education (3 Rs: Reading, Writing, Arithmetic).

            In Scotland, 1/2000 child went to 2ary school but most of them knew the 3 Rs : they were literate.

          3. sound (= solid) business community
          4. To invest in new factories and techniques.

            Acquired during the 18th century with the tobacco trade.

            Glasgow was ready for the industrial revolution : it already had the infrastructure (business and manufacturing community).

          5. faith in the age
          6. People believed in progress, nothing was impossible, technology could solve the problems and bring happiness and a good standard of living.

            It created dynamism (easier to succeed if you have the faith).

            But they had difficulty in seeing the limits of progress, which led to various catastrophes among which the " Titanic ".

          7. the shape of the city

Large Empire = large market.

        1. disadvantages of Glasgow
Bad housing conditions :

People lived in poor accommodations

The number of people per room had had to be limited

Poverty
Poor hygiene and diseases (high infant mortality rate)
    1. glasgow between the two wars
      1. industry
Expansion to replace what was destroyed or not made.
1920s : decline because of a lack of diversification for structural reasons.
1929 : Wall Street crash and Great Depression. The areas most industrialised suffered most (Great Britain and Germany).
The business community became also less dynamic. Glasgow was living on its past.
New industries developed (car industry, radio sets, vacuum cleaners,...) but in Scotland old factories were closing more quickly than new ones were opening (reverse in England).

Scotland share of British industrial production :

1924 9.9%

1935 8.2%

Nevertheless, the service industry did great in Glasgow (but at the expense of farmers).
Late 30s : future WW2 saved the shipbuilding industry. But there was a general decline in heavy industry and an emigration of people to the South (The Midlands)
1934 : launching of the Queen Mary. It was the beginning of the government intervention in shipbuilding industry.
      1. population
Decline after WW2 : people moved away from the city to find jobs in Canada, USA, South Africa, Australia.
1934: Special areas legislation (for the 1st time, the government intervened in the economy). It designated Clydeside but not Glasgow city (its unemployment was a little lower)

Unemployment :

1932 30% (76% in shipbuilding)

Today 15%

      1. housing
Many problems of overcrowding even if the number of people living in a room was regulated.
1930s : campaign of slum (= taudis) clearance. The authorities destroyed slums and built housing estates (= HLM) often on the periphery and jerry-built (= quickly and with cheap materials).
Middle-class people left the city for the surrounding areas (development of the use of cars).
      1. hygiene
Very poor hygiene (no running water)
It led to a lot of young death from diseases or epidemics (ex : tuberculosis)
1930s: it was better but tuberculosis remained a major problem.
      1. politics and social unrest (= malaise)
Social unrest due to bad housing and unemployment.
Glasgow has a history of worker protest. The tradeunionism and Labour party are very strong.
1926 : General strike (only example in GB)
Glasgow get the label of red Clydeside (communism)
1930s : anger marches
Glasgow has a bad reputation for violence (rival gangs)
      1. social life
Begun to improve for middle classes ; but leisure was 2nd after work.
For all classes : Church, cinema, dancing.
    1. glasgow during WW2
All weapons were good for Glasgows factories.
All women had to work : the industry had to keep running. After the war they stayed (=/= in WW1).
Glasgow was severely bombed during the war to destroy the war industry. Major bombing in 3 places : London (industry and government), Birmingham (Midlands), Clydeside (heavy industry).
But Glasgow boomed during the war until the 50s.
  1. glasgow today
    1. 1950 - 1980
50s : big period of immigration (from India, Pakistan and former English colonies) ; the problem was they were Muslims.
1950-60 :

Building of peripheral estates for people rehoused from slums in the Gorbal and Govan (former site of the shipyards)

Building of industrial towns

Consequence : the latter picked the skilled workers and left the unskilled

Beginning of the 60s : slow down.

All industries begun to crack, essentially the shipbuilding industry (competition won the contracts).

In a way, Glasgow did not succeed because it was not destroyed enough.

1960 : All industries begun to crack ; heavy industry begun to shed labour (= licencier de la main d'oeuvre)
End of the 60s : shipbuilding industry nationalised, 2 shipyard (= chantier de construction navale).
1968 : A hurricane swept through Glasgow leaving 16,000 people homeless.

As it was impossible to build other housing quickly, rehabilitation of the Victorian tenements.

1970 : Glasgow lost 40 % of its industrial jobs. So, the government developed a massive development program and discovered its wealth in arts.
70s : the government abandoned the shipyards.

They got a reprieve (= un sursis) because it was required to build new things : the oil industry in the North Sea. Britain became an oil producer and Glasgow the administrative centre of the oil industry. But the market for oil rigs (= plate-forme ptrolire) is very limited.

1980 : The surrounding estates of Glasgow are marooned (= abandonn).

Causes :

The council's system of allocation for public houses' tenants (= locataires) is too much rigid: people have to stay 25 years in the estate.

There is no jobs; only 6 % of the people are employed in the estate, moreover some public services are privatised at the expense of employees.

There is not any efficient transport system, which would be important for only 16 % of the households have a car.

There are no skilled workers. And even if the government funds an Employment Training Programme, it is seen as a tool of Thatcherism and not efficient (new building workers don't want to be held back by trainees.

    1. From 1980 onwards
      1. Why did Glasgow decided to change ?
Less and less manual workers in favour of the service industry.
Glasgow wants to change its image of industrial city to post industrial city (purpose : its economic future).
The youngsters followed the work (away).
      1. What are the advantages of Glasgow ?
        1. A place to live
Leisure, entertainment :

Lots of golf courses (attracts businessmen).

Lots of green spaces, more than 70 parks open to public,...

Culture, arts :

11 museums of international quality. (The Burrel Collection)

6 theatres, 2 concert halls, 7 cinemas, 43 public libraries

It is the home of the Scottish Ballet, Opera and national orchestra

Since 1980, 1 billion has been invested in arts

" The List " is a newspaper which gives the places of cultural events in Glasgow or Edinburgh

        1. A place to settle and work
Advantages of GB :

language

working condition (GB didnt sign the Charter Agreement of Maastricht about working condition)

a good workforce (unemployment)

pleasant environment : a lot of clear spaces

There are university people available to work (good tradition of high education).
Some companies are already settled.
A very good international transport service (2 specialised airports : 1 for Europe, 1 for transatlantic traffic) and motorway system.
The laws are different than in England (ex : shops can open on Sunday).
There is space to settle.
Attractive rates and subsidies.
Hotels are built to attend international conferences.
Government department has been relocated in Glasgow to create more life around.
The service industry is doing well in Glasgow ; but there's a limit to how much it can create jobs :

it can only survive if there are 2 other sectors.

it doesnt mean all the benefits from those services are redistributed in GB, it can be services for other countries.

      1. What are the disadvantages of Glasgow ?
Unemployment : there are still 17% of the workers unemployed, 23% of Glasgow men.
Situation : Glasgow is on the wrong side for sea trade : what was an advantage to trade with the American colonies before is now a disadvantage with Europe. When oil was found in the North sea, Glasgow was still on the wrong side.
Competition

from the surroundings : The companies that wanted to set up in Scotland decided to go in the new towns around Glasgow.

From Edinburgh, the 2nd most tourist city after London in the UK.

Bad name linked with the industry and industrial unrest.
      1. Which were Glasgow favourable changes ?
1982 : The Pride of the Clyde.

It had a specific function as the 1st major event Glasgow was issuing to regenerate itself : to have the people who had or had had a connection (family or who had lived there before,...) with Glasgow to come back for tourism.

It had been a real success.

1983 : Glasgow's miles better ; "It's a great place to live and work".

It was an international campaign : they spelled the rumours by presenting a series of " facts " about Glasgow.

Consequence :

Tourism in Glasgow :

1982 700,000 people

1984 2,200,000 people

1986 : The EEC designates Glasgow as the European City of Culture for 1990.
1988 :

The government "New life for urban Scotland" programme (businessmen, politics, housing bodies and the Scottish office planned to improve the economy, environment and education)

Glasgow's Garden Festival : horticulture combined with hundreds of attractions.

Principle : designation of an area of derelict land (= terrain vague, en friche) as the site of the festival ; then use of the public money for land renewal to reclaim (= mettre en valeur) the land and stage (= organiser) the festival. After the festival, the land is available for development.

Consequence : to attract private investments.

Problems : diversion of the public resources at the expense of other sites in Scotland and use of the public money for private development.

Mayfest, Glasgow's international festival of the arts.

It's the 2nd largest festival in the UK ; it combines international theatre, music, dance with Scottish companies.

1990 : European city of culture

 

 

Manchester

  1. ECONOMIC PROFILE OF MANCHESTER
    1. geography
Manchester is one of the most important city of England as capital of the 2nd largest region in the UK, The Northwest.
In the Southeast corner of Lancashire County.
188 miles North of London ; 30 miles East of Liverpool.
Lies on the Irwell River, an affluent of the Mersey.
Bordered by the low Pennine Hills on the North and East and entering the fertile Cheshire plains on the South.
    1. climate
The climate is temperate.
Prevailing wind is Southeast.
30 inches rainfall : damp (= humide) weather rather than wet.
Fogs and mists (= brume) in the winter.
    1. population
Manchester :

population growth :

1717

8,000

1817

10,000

1831

142,000

1850

303,000

1900

543,872

1931

766,378

1961

662,000

1988

457,500

Greater Manchester (= circle of 50 miles around Manchester) : 2.6 million people.
    1. natural resources
Water from natural wells.
Coal mined at 2 pits in the city and extensively in the surrounding areas.
Vast salt beds in the South.
  1. BEFORE THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
    1. ancient history
Manchester was a very insignificant town.
It was a staging post on the way from Chester to York (It is just before the crossing of the hills The Pennines).
79 AD : The Romans establish a fort (= a small portion of the wall still exists) at Mancenion to guard a military road.
426 : The Romans leave Mancenion.
870 : The Danes (= Danois) destroy the town.
920 : Edward the Elder rebuild it.
1028 : King Canute gives Manchester the right to coin money.
1086 : The Doomsday survey qualify the town as poor and sparsely populated.
    1. medieval
Manchesters importance dates from the 13th century.
It became a modest trading centre during the Middle Ages.
Industries existing : coal, manufacturing, iron, steel, network of canals.
Bad situation (the Pennines are almost mountains) and weather very rude made it impossible to raise cattle or to have crops.
So they spinned (= filer) and weaved (= tisser) cotton.
But very small quantity
1229 : Henry III grants an annual fair (= foire).
1330 : First signs of industrial activity : settlement of immigrant Flemish manufacturers.
1500 : Vegetable cotton, " cotton wool ", introduced.
1536 : Manchester described as " the fairest, best built, quickest and most populous town in all Lancashire ".
1645 : Manchester is represented by a member of Parliament.
1690 : Art of calico printing introduced from France.
By 1700, the textile industry had become more organised and specialised.
Beginning of the use of machines.
  1. THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION (1750-1880)
    1. the cotton industry
      1. There were 7 reasons for the textile industry to develop in Manchester
  1. Climate
  2. It is a cross-section.

    The damp weather helps to spin and weave textile ; if it was dry, the cotton would break.

  3. Water
  4. The valleys focus on Manchester. It created a system of rivers and steams.

    This confluence is useful to transport cotton to Liverpool.

    Moreover, dyeing and bleaching require a lot of moving water (power for water wheels).

  5. Presence of coal
  6. Important for the Industrial Revolution. But now you have to dig (no more on surface).

  7. Important workforce available
  8. People come from the farms of the Pennine.

  9. Cheap land available for setting up mills
  10. Influence of Liverpools seaport
  11. Liverpool dominates the river Mersey.

    Import of raw cotton and export of finished goods.

    It enabled Manchester to benefit from the triangular trade.

  12. No restrictive practices

During the Middle Ages and after, different categories of workers grouped into gilds : 1st co-op movement. It was similar to the trade union movement in the 19th century. The most famous group was the Masons.

But, in Manchester there were no gilds !. It was a good thing to introduce new things. Development of individualism.

      1. the rise of the textile industry
Discovery and exploitation of steam power.
Cheap US cotton = cheap cotton goods = possibility to sell even to the poorest countries.
Opening up of road and river communications (cf. transport).
Multitude of mechanical inventions for cotton manufacture.
New machinery needed more factories.
1784 : American cotton imported for the 1st time through the Bridgewater canal.
1785 : 1st steam engine used in cotton manufacture in Miller Street.
1788 : Chemical bleaching begins.
1912 : Textile industry reached a peak in production

Free trade, coal and steam engineering, vigorous individual enterprise, workforce of 600,00 men and women, 2/3 of the worlds trade and cotton earned 25% of all overseas earnings.

      1. the decline
Old fashioned equipment and reluctance to buy new machinery.
Old fashioned techniques and reluctance to change them.
Refusal to amalgamate.
New and more efficient competition.
Dependence on raw materials imports.
1830s and 1840s : Food shortage.
1843 : No more restriction on the exportation of textile machinery.
1860s : Restriction of cotton imports (American civil War).
1862-1864 : Cotton famine in Lancashire (best producer)

In 1862, 500,000 workers were living close to starvation.

Nevertheless, there was an enormous overseas market in cloth.

1920 : Competition from Japan on printed clothes.

They even bought machinery from Lancashire.

1931 : Import duties introduced (protectionism).
After WW2, American mills were 2 or 3 times as productive and more modern.

1950 : British market share was declining despite the post war boom.

Competition from Hong Kong, Pakistan and India.

India used this production to remain independent from the UK.

Protectionism was against the British ideal of free trade. So, they reduced wages.

1958 : Britain imports cotton goods for the 1st time.
1959 Cotton industry Act.

The government closed a lot of old plants and offered grants to owners to modernise (20% more new machinery).

But it failed because developing countries could also buy new machinery and they had lower overheads and labour costs.

    1. economic and social aspects of Manchester
      1. economic trends
The anti-corn Law League (1830-46)

The corn law was protectionist : it kept the price of corn artificially high to prevent import and help the agriculture lobby, composed of aristocratic land owners.

Its opponents : supporters of the free trade.

Country people and the working class : food became too expensive for them.

Bosses wanted to pay less the workers.

Exporters, because the rest of Europe could sell corn to UK.

1832 : 1st Reform Act : Representation at Parliament.

Manchester becomes a Parliamentary borough with 2 members.

The government recognised working people should have the right to express and that the new industrial cities should exist officially.

1838 : Charter of incorporation.

It gives Manchester an elected municipal council with wide powers of local government.

Manchester becomes a city.
      1. social and political problems
        1. The social problems
Huge increase in the population of Manchester but little social infrastructure because there was no council until 1838.
No control for children and womens work.
Depression of the region due to slumps in the cotton industry.
        1. The political problem
George III is king but its his son, the future George IV whos reigning. But people dont like him for hes selfish.

Moreover, the ministers are Tories, against any reform.

The solution :

The only solution for people is insurrection, which is easy because there are no British police and the rapid growth of the towns didnt allow them to experience mass riots.

The consequence :

Frequent demonstrations in the streets.

16-08-1819 : " Peterloos slaughter ", for politic and parliamentary reform. Manchester and Cheshires voluntary cavalry charges the crowd in St Peters Field, in Manchester.

    1. transport
      1. canals
1761 : Duke of Bridgewaters canal (Manchester - Worsley coal mines).

The 1st canal in the Country.

It transported coal, stones, timbers, wares, merchandises, passengers.

1784 : American cotton imported for the 1st time through the Bridgewater canal.

1795 : Act of Parliament completed the canal to Manchester.

1759 : Canal joining the rivers Trent and Mersey.
Disadvantages of canals :

very low

not suitable for passengers, not comfortable

freezes on winter

expensive to build

monopoly of the canal owners : high rates charged

Advantages : better than rough tracks.
      1. the railway revolution
1821 : Stephenson builds the 1st locomotive.
1824 : The "Tramroad" between the port of Liverpool and the manufacturing centre of Manchester.
1830 : Opening of the Manchester and Liverpool Railway.
1850 : Direct rail link with London.
Which were the problems :

Railroads werent strong enough to cope with vibrations

Steam engines blew up

Then came the 1st successful regular railway : the Stephenson Rocket.
Advantages of the railway :

Quick

Cheap

More comfortable than coach

Keeps going in winter

      1. the Manchester Ship Canal (1894)
The problems :

The river Mersey was narrow and shallow and was beginning to silt up (= senvaser)

Railways charge too much for goods

Many empty warehouses in Manchester

The solution : to make Manchester a port by building a canal to it.

1885 : Building of a canal between Manchester and the river Mersey.

1894 : It opens.

The consequences : the MSC revitalised the textile industry, helped to diversify Manchesters industry (Trafford Park became the industrial centre of Manchester).
  1. THE 20TH CENTURY
    1. 2 misconceptions about Manchesters reputation as the home of cotton manufacture
      1. Cotton manufacture is carried out within the city boundary (= limite)
In fact, cotton manufacture within the city is negligible.
The spinning, bleaching, weaving, dyeing, printing and finishing processes are carried on in the surrounding towns.
The research, marketing and other commercial facilities are provided in Manchester.

Research into cotton problems is performed by the Shirley Institute at Didsbury.

      1. Cotton manufacture is the sole important local industry
Cotton manufacture is still the principal local industry.
But the heavy engineering and chemical industries are now almost equally important, and the volume of production in the city is considerable.
Manchester is the biggest advertising centre outside London (2,000 employees).
Manchester is a newspaper publishing centre comparable with London : more than 10 newspapers published plus 5 Northern editions of national papers.
Other major products : Rubber (= caoutchouc), leather, wires (= fils mtallique),ropes (=corde), aircraft, storage batteries (= accumulateur), clothing, asbestos (= amiante), belting and chains, and light industrial goods.
    1. business environment
      1. employment and training
A pool of labour near every industry : 3rd population of the UK + good transport system.
79% of jobs in Manchester are in the service industry : 738,000 employees.
Business services : 111,000 employees.
Manufacturing base : 280,000 employees (half the outputs of the NW).
Unemployment : 10.8% (= UK, but < NW region).
150 employment agencies.
2 weekly newspapers specialising in recruitment.
      1. financial and professional services
Manchester is the UKs largest regional banking centre.
Houses the largest regional branch of the Bank of England.
Over 60 international banks or funding institutions in Greater Manchester.
More management consultants than any other British regional centre.
Houses the largest single administration unit of the Stock Exchange (120 members).
The Royal Exchange used to deal with cotton exchange, but now it deals with all classes of goods.
      1. business premises and grants
587 hectares of land available for industrial development (40% is within 1 mile of a motorway junction).
Rental values in the city increased by 9% a year over 90-91.
Much of the areas industry is concentrated in Trafford Park, one of Europes largest industrial estate.
Manchester science park : laboratory accommodations.
3 office sectors : the city centre, Salford Quays and South Manchester.
Retail market : Arndale centre : 1 of Europes largest covered shopping mall.
Grants from the city and other organisations for companies moving into Manchester, but at some conditions : private sector, necessity of the grant, job creation, private housing or other benefits.
The Loan Guarantee Scheme of the Department of Trade and Industry helps small firms to obtain finance.
      1. media and telecommunications
Manchester has the largest single concentration of media activities and facilities outside London.
Television :
" Granada TV " is Britains largest independent TV company.
Radio :
Manchester is served by 5 local radio stations.
" Piccadilly Radio " is Britains largest regional independent station.
Press :
Northern editions of 8 national daily newspapers are produced in Manchester.
" The Manchester Evening News " is Britains best selling regional newspaper.
1821 : " The Manchester Guardian " is established as a weekly newspaper.

1855 : It becomes daily.

1959 : It changes its name to " The Guardian ".

1983 : 500,000 copies a day.

    1. transport
      1. airport
1929 : Manchester is the 1st town in the world to have a municipal airport, which provides the 1st air service from Manchester to the European continent.
Manchester airport (Ringway) is a trump card (= atout) to Manchester. It helped to diversify its industry.
It is ranked 18th in the world.
It is the fastest growing in Europe and one of the top freight airport in Europe (frozen food).
It is the 3rd airport of England after the two of London.
It has a strong base for charter traffic and regular / scheduled services.
45 min. to London, 69 flights per week.
It is at a 20 min. drive from the city centre.
Problem : People using international lines must go to London to catch their flight : expansion planned.
3 phases of expansion :

March 1993 : +6 million passengers a year

1998 : +24 million

1998 : +30 million (opening of a second runway)

There is also a municipal airport at Barton-upon-Humber for private flying and air-taxi work.
      1. roads
        1. general situation
Extensive car parking in the city.
Frequent buses and extensive semi-public network plus 40 operators.
8 motorways (free but congested).
60% of the British population is within a 2 hour drive.
        1. public transports advantages in Manchester
Early morning, late night, week-end
Connection with trains
Clean, pleasant, safe
Inexpensive (free for disabled and elderly people and students)
Easy to use for specific people : children, pushchairs, disabled people

RQ : 1986 : Public transport deregulation (open to competition).

The money comes from government grants and taxes.

      1. rails
        1. Intraurban transport : the LRT, " Light Rapid Transit "
The Metrolink opened in 1992.
27,500 people a day.
It helps commerce and pedestrian traffic in the city.
It links the 2 railway stations.
Advantages :

Flexibility : goes in the city and suburbs and uses the railway infrastructure

Ecology : no fumes, little noise

        1. interurban transport
The swinging train (= train pendulaire), a fiasco.
The tram becomes a railway.
2 railway stations : Piccadilly and Victoria.
Links with all major cities.
      1. sea
Manchester depends on the port of Liverpool through the MSC.
Only for freight.
Over 60 shipping services.
Renovation of the MSC.
    1. medecine
75 public hospitals in Greater Manchester among which 5 are of international recognition.
3 major private hospitals.
Large number of teaching hospitals in the city.
The Manchester University Medical School is the largest in Europe.
Christie Hospital is Englands largest hospital for cancer research and treatment.
    1. education
Manchester has the greatest number of universities and colleges outside London.
The biggest campus in Britain, one of the largest in Europe.
In GB, you need at least 2 A(dvanced Levels) to go to the university. Then the university takes only the best (selection).
Tradition of applied sciences and technologies to business and engineering and computer
Tremendous number of foreign students :

They bring in more money (British students have their education paid by the Local Education Authority : 2,000 a year).

Personal tutor for each student.
Less people in classes.
Universities maintain close links with the industry :

1944 : Creation of the Manchester Joint Research Council, comprising (= contenir) member of the Manchester Chamber of Commerce and Manchester University.

Aim : To bring together science and industry, disseminate new knowledge, encourage research, and inquire into industrial, scientific, economic, and sociological problems.

3 universities in the city :

Manchesters university. It is well known because its where the 1st programme for computer was made.

University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (UMIST). It has links with the industry.

The Manchester Metropolitan University (Manchester polytechnic). Among the biggest universities in UK. Specialised in practical courses (Ex : catering, textile design,...). It enables people to find a job easily.

2 universities outside Manchester :

Manchester Business School. With London BS, they are the 2 most famous BS. It is expensive.

Salford university. Found capital through sponsorship after Thatcher reduced the budget by 40% in 1981.

    1. social and cultural environment
      1. culture
1994 : UKs city of drama.
Manchester has more theatres than any other areas outside London.
Manchester has 3 symphony orchestras including Britains oldest : the Hall.
It hosts Britains 1st international music convention : " In the City ".
World famous bands such as " Simply Red " and " Take That " come from Manchester.
It is home of the Nia centre, Europes 1st Afro-Caribbean cultural centre and venue (= lieu de rendez-vous).
Greater Manchester Museum of Science and Industry.
      1. leisure
Arndale shopping mall is one of Europes largest covered shopping centre.
Country parks, moors (= lande, bruyre), plains, lakes and sea are within 2 hours drive of the city centre.
      1. sports
Manchester was nominated by England for the 1996 (Atlanta won) and 2000 (Sydney won) Olympic Games but lost both.

But Manchester won the right to host the 2002 Commonwealth Games, which will be watched by of the world.

2 world famous football teams (Manchester United, which is in 1st division, and Manchester City).
National cycling centre : Europes most modern indoor velodrome.
Cricket clubs, golf courses, tennis clubs.
    1. manchesters efforts to become a tourist destination
Use of the existing fabric and buildings rather than razing it all : Historic mills and warehouses are being converted into luxury apartments and hotels are refurbished.
Trafford Park (1902), the 1st purpose-built industrial park, made possible by the MSC, was a deliberate effort to reawaken England.
The Salford Docks were converted into Salford Quays, in 1990, a protected area (private guards) containing modern housing, a marina and high tech enterprises.
" Granada TV " imported the concept of a Studio Tour, which became one of the NW 1st tourist attraction.
Building projects :

New concert hall

New national stadium

New hotels

New conference centre which will help to maintain full the extra beds opened for the Olympics.

Major housing projects in Manchester.

  1. conclusion
    1. advantages of Manchester
Manchesters position in the world

It is an important city in the world :

It is cosmopolitan (70 American companies, 30 Japanese companies and numerous European organisations settled in Manchester)

2 world famous football teams

World famous bands such as " Simply Red " and " Take That " come from Manchester

5 public hospitals are of international recognition

Ringway airport is ranked 18th in the world

It is a European city :

11/165 European city for economic importance and potential

3/28 European city for availability and value for money of office spare

4/28 European city for cost and availability of staff

Arndale shopping mall is one of Europes largest covered shopping centre

The Manchester University Medical School is the largest in Europe

Ringway airport is the fastest growing in Europe and one of the top freight airport in Europe

Trafford Park is one of Europes largest industrial estate

It is an English city :

National cycling centre 

The biggest campus in Britain, one of the largest in Europe

Christie Hospital is Englands largest hospital for cancer research and treatment

" Granada TV " is Britains largest independent TV company

" Piccadilly Radio " is Britains largest regional independent station

Houses the largest single administration unit of the Stock Exchange

Houses the largest regional branch of the Bank of England

Manchester is the UKs largest regional banking centre

Advantages linked to Manchesters position in England :

Language

Political and economic stability

Reasonable legal framework

Working condition (gb didnt sign the charter agreement of Maastricht about working condition)

Pleasant environment : a lot of clear spaces

Property in the North is cheaper than in the South

The UK has the most sophisticated information technology networks in the world

Manchesters own advantages :

There are university people available to work

A good workforce (unemployment : 10.8% in Greater Manchester)

Some companies are already settled

A very good international transport service

There is space to settle

Attractive rates and subsidies

Hotels are built to attend international conferences

The service industry is doing well in Manchester (represents 738,309 employees in Manchester)

RQ : But there's a limit to how much it can create jobs :

It can only survive if there are 2 other sectors.

It doesnt mean all the benefits from those services are redistributed in GB, it can be services for other countries.

NW region key strengths :

Road links

Air infrastructure

Quality of life, environment

Statistics :

80% of firms think the region is good or excellent for business

44% of NW overseas visitors are attracted by Manchester

45% of firms think NW is improving in relation with the rest

11th city in the world for safety

    1. disadvantages of Manchester
NW region key weaknesses :

Bad image

Road infrastructure

Quality of public sector support

Barriers to growth :

External :

Overseas competition

Interest rates

Poor trading conditions

Regional :

Inadequate public sector support

Image of the region

Lack of regional development agency

Skill shortages

Environmental problems

Manchesters problems :

Thousands of people live below poverty line in appalling conditions

Many homeless people

Burglary, vandalism and drug problems

Overpriced houses and flats

Expensive, overloaded and unreliable transport

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